ENGINES: Tier Time

April 1, 2002
As the world grows increasingly conscious of environmental issues and obstacles affecting our planet, policy makers worldwide continue to lower the legal

As the world grows increasingly conscious of environmental issues and obstacles affecting our planet, policy makers worldwide continue to lower the legal levels of emissions from many sources. One of the key focuses of legislated emissions levels currently is in mobile off-highway equipment. Over the next two years, engine manufacturers must comply with the next level of emissions — Tier 2. This lowers emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) by 54 percent from the current Tier 1 levels. Although cleaner air is the collective goal of all parties, the trick for the diesel engine manufacturing industry now becomes how to craft high-quality, functional products that are affordable as well as Tier 2 compliant.

The rental equipment industry is one that offers a vast array of products, using a wide variety of mechanical and electronic diesel engines to perform numerous tasks. Due to the broad range of rental equipment on the market today, it's important for diesel engine manufacturers to increase the breadth of their product lines in order to provide the right piece of equipment for the right application. Whether it's a 60-hp diesel engine for a portable air compressor or a 150-hp diesel for a rough-terrain forklift, the right engine is a must for an effective, efficient piece of machinery.

In years past, rental equipment manufacturers have demanded four key attributes when deciding which engine will best suit each of their various products: high quality, high performance, low maintenance and low cost. Now as the legislative landscape changes, equipment manufacturers must add another “low” to the growing list of needs: emissions.

Lower emissions standards undoubtedly raise concerns among rental equipment manufacturers and owners about higher cost and increased maintenance for diesel engines. It is the responsibility of engine manufacturers to continue to offer high-quality, highly functional products that are low maintenance and low cost despite the lower emissions standards. Although to some it may sound like an improbable task given the challenge of Tier 2 emissions levels, it is nonetheless one that engine manufacturers worldwide are working harder than ever to accomplish.

The fact that rental equipment manufacturers are concerned that the emissions standards will affect their engines' productivity, along with their pocketbooks, is all the more reason for diesel engine producers to put extra thought, technology and resources into producing the most cost-effective and efficient products possible. It is certain that emissions standards will continue to become more and more of a challenge in diesel engine design. Therefore, engine manufacturers must take a proactive approach in complying with environmental standards while continuing to produce higher-quality products.

Diesel engine manufacturers are strenuously working to offer efficient, cost-effective engines that meet Tier 2 requirements. And as rental equipment manufacturers are continuously searching for the right piece of technology for the right piece of equipment, engine producers must be certain to select the right technology for the right range of products. Offering mechanical and electronic Tier 2-compliant engines that are more robust, more flexible and produce lower noise emissions are additional features that will help to increase the performance of a given piece of rental equipment. Diesel engine manufacturers worldwide are beginning to recognize that a wide range of low emissions-producing engine lines is essential in order to keep pace in an industry that offers such a broad scope of products.

All manufacturers know that, in the years to come, the environment will continue to be an important issue and emissions standards will continue to lower. That being said, it's the responsibility of the diesel engine manufacturing industry to continue to adhere to these legislative standards. But in light of new emissions regulations and the intense amount of time and resources being allocated to Tier 2 compliance, the challenge for the engine manufacturer is to continue producing high-performance, affordable products to fit each and every facet of the rental equipment industry.

Kristin Bridges is marketing VPI leader, Tier 2 Midrange, for Cummins Inc., Columbus, Ind.


The Cummins B3.3 is an in-line 4-cylinder diesel engine with direct injection and comes with a choice of natural aspiration or turbo-charging. It delivers up to 85 hp with a 215 pound/feet torque. Its compact footprint and flexible design make it easy to engineer, fitting a wide variety of equipment.
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With a 7.3-amp motor, the G12S2 has been upgraded to possess 30 percent more power than its predecessor. It has a no-load speed of 11,000 rpm and the motor input of 760W can produce up to 1,000W of unbridled power. Lightweight and compact, the product has a diameter about the size of a baseball and an easy to grasp main handle. The side grip handle further provides for accurate use.
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Kawasaki adds the 29-horsepower FD791D-DFI to its FD Series engines. All FD models are OHV, V-twin engines, featuring Kawasaki's advanced manufacturing technologies that use lightweight yet sturdy aluminum and composite materials. Each engine uses a cooling system for easy installation in tight spaces. It uses a fan-cooled radiator that is 50 percent larger than required for its engine displacement, providing continued performance in dusty construction-site environments.
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The Valvoline Co. develops a synthetic engine oil Premium Blue Extreme that offers extended drain capability and fuel economy benefits for heavy-duty fleet applications. This product meets all requirements for the API CI-4 performance classification, as well as Cummins 20078. The technology of the oil is specifically designed to enhance performance and maintain extended drain intervals up to 100,000 miles in select engines under certain operating conditions. Among a host of benefits is its unique dispersive polymer technology, which disperses individual soot particles.
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Robin Subaru

The new EX Series engines from Robin Subaru cover a power range of 4.5 to 9 hp and target a range of applications, including general construction equipment, compaction equipment, portable generators, pumps compressors and other industrial engine applications. The new engines are the first Robin Subaru models to incorporate an overhead cam system, along with a redesigned combustion chamber and optimized intake and exhaust ports. The combustion chamber features a very high efficiency pent-roof design in which the top of the combustion chamber is angled. This design, which also incorporated a redesigned intake and exhaust system, intensifies the air intake and fuel-air mixing, while reducing dead volume and eliminating flow losses.
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The Perkins 3.1524 is a naturally aspirated, 3-cylinder, 2.5-litre engine. It is an upgrade of the D3.152, giving increased performance with the same premium design features to provide economic and durable operation. It offers one side servicing for reduced service time and cost. Direct injection combustion technology and rotary fuel injection pump provide high performance with excellent fuel economy.
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Positioned at the lower end of the Caterpillar power range, the 3003C/3024C engines take maximum output to 45 kW. The 3054/3056 family operates in the 50 kW to 130 kW power range and is available in productions well ahead of all current EU and US EPA Stage II/Tier 2 off-highway emissions requirements.
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Kohler Engines introduces Kohler Hydro 13, an engine designed specifically for pressure washer applications and virtually any light to medium equipment. The engine features a tight-tolerance, fast-response governor that detects when load is applied and quickly delivers continuous power, so there is little to no bogging down. The engine provides users with easy, dependable starts by combining a sealed electronic TCI ignition system, automatic compression release and dual main ball bearings. It incorporates materials such as a cast-iron cylinder sleeve, steel-forged crankshaft, Stellite faced exhaust valve and Tufftride-coated stem.
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John Deere

When it comes to off-highway applications, John Deere has extensive history and expertise. Committed to applying the ideal level of engine technology to optimize individual off-highway equipment performance, Deere engines are distributed worldwide for use in construction, agricultural and forestry machines, air compressors, electrical generator sets, irrigation pumps and more.
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Briggs & Stratton

The 16.5-hp lawnmower engine from Briggs & Stratton has an overhead valve design and 31-cubic-inch displacement. The Dura-bore cast iron cylinder sleeve protects against wear and abuse while providing improved oil control. It also offers an upper DU bearing and heavy-duty lower bearing, increased diameter crankshaft pin and dual-clean air cleaner. The high oil fill with automotive-type dipstick makes it easy to accurately check and service oil while preventing under and over filling.
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Current OHVI engines from Generac Power Systems range from single cylinder engines 6 to 15 hp and V-twins from 22 to 35 hp. All OHVI engines feature full pressure lubrication, spin-on oil filters and maxtorq governor systems for extreme long life and superior on the job performance. OHVI uses advanced overhead valve design and cast-iron cylinder liners to lower oil consumption, improve operating efficiency and meet EPA and CARB low emission requirements. Every model is available in both horizontal and vertical crankshaft configurations.
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American Honda

Honda has become known as the leader in creating four-stroke engines that are reliable, technologically advanced and easy to start. The company offers a full line of engines, 1 to 24 hp, in both horizontal and vertical shaft designs. The overhead valve models have a lightweight design for reduced fuel and oil consumption. The engines meet current CARB and EPA standards and offer enhanced performances, all with no change to existing external dimensions.
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The new X-Series from Lister-Petter offers the necessary competitive edge. The series brings a comprehensive line of engines with increased power density and simplicity of design with fewer parts for better service. It is Tier II compliant.
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The 2011 series from Deutz is the successor to the 1011F series and offers enlarged displacement, up to 14 percent uprating and higher torque. It also has an extended service life of the toothed timing belt and greater reliability through optimized cylinder head cooling and broader flywheel ring gear. Oil cooling prevents corrosion and cavitation. The engine has low noise emissions.
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